Technology

How a $300 projector can fool Teslas Autopilot

Enlarge / This image, taken from the interior of a Tesla Model X, shows a projected image of a car in front of the Model X. The inset in the bottom right, created by Nassi from the Model X's logs, shows the Model X detecting the projection as a real car.Ben Nassi

Six months ago, Ben Nassi, a PhD student at Ben-Gurion University advised by Professor Yuval Elovici, carried off a set of successful spoofing attacks against a Mobileye 630 Pro Driver Assist System using inexpensive drones and battery-powered projectors. Since then, he has expanded the technique to experiment—also successfully—with confusing a Tesla Model X and will be presenting his findings at the Cybertech Israel conference in Tel Aviv.

The spoofing attacks largely rely on the difference between human and AI image recognition. For the most part, the images Nassi and his team projected to troll the Tesla would not fool a typical human driver—in fact, some of the spoofing attacks were nearly steganographic, relying on the differences in perception not only to make spoofing attempts successful but also to hide them from human observers.

  • This is a frame from an ad you might see on a digital billboard, with a fake speed-limit sign inserted. It's only present for an eighth of a second, and most drivers would miss it—but AI image recognition recognizes it. Ben Nassi
  • Humans wouldn't fall for a fake road sign projected into tree leaves. But AI image recognition generally will. Ben Nassi
  • Humans would definitely notice these projected lane markers but would be unlikely to honor them. The Autopilot in a Tesla Model X took them as legit and swerved to follow them. Ben Nassi

Nassi created a video outlining what he sees as the danger of these spoofing attacks, which he called "Phantom of the ADAS," and a small website offering the video, an abstract outlining his work, and the full reference paper itself. We don't necessarily agree with the spin Nassi puts on his work—for the most part, it looks to us like the Tesla responds pretty reasonably and well to these deliberate attempts to confuse its sensors. We do think this kind of work is important, however, as it demonstrates the need for defensive design of semi-autonomous driving systems.

Nassi and his team's spoofing of the Model X was carried out with a human assistant holding a projector, due to drone laws in the country where the experiments were carried out. But the spoof could have also been carried out by drone, as his earlier spoofing attacks on a Mobileye driver-assistance system were.

From a security perspective, the interesting angle here is that the attacker never has to be at the scene of the attack and doesn't need to leave any evidence behind—and the attacker doesn't need much technical expertise. A teenager with a $400 drone and a battery-powered projector could reasonably pull this off with no more know-how than "hey, it'd be hilarious to troll cars down at the highway, right?" The equipment doesn't need to be expensive or fancy—Nassi's team used several $200-$300 projectors successfully, one of which was rated for only 854×480 resolution and 100 lumens.

This is the full "Phantom of the ADAS" video. The effect of projected lane markers on a Model X in Autopilot mode, at 2:02, are particularly interesting.

Of course, nobody should be letting a Tesla drive itself unsupervised in the first place—Autopilot is a Level 2 Driver Assistance System, not the controller for a fully autonomous vehicle. Although Tesla did not respond to requests for comment on the record, the company's press kit describes Autopilot very clearly (emphasis ours):

Autopilot is intended for use only with a fully attentive driver who has their hands on the wheel and is prepared to take over at any time. While Autopilot is designed to become more capable over time, in its current form, it is not a self-driving system, it does not turn a Tesla into an autonomous vehicle, and it does not allow the driver to abdicate responsibility. When used properly, Autopilot reduces a driver's overall workload, and the redundancy of eight external cameras, radar and 12 ultrasonic sensors provides an additional layer of safety that two eyes alone would not have.

Even the name "Autopilot" itself isn't as inapprRead More – Source

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